Wednesday, March 18, 2020
indopak history and relation Essays indopak history and relation Essay indopak history and relation Essay indopak history and relation BY 122 PAK INDIA relations intro historical background current situation indo pak relations always remain hostile. from day one india is against pak existance. there were three major wars 1964,1971 , 1999. the continuity of hostile relation can be attributed to kashmir problem which is still unresolved. ln 1999 Nawaz sharif started dailouge with india but due to kargil war whole process was ruined. again in 2004 efforts were made to sort out problems and to devise a mechanism to resolve the problems a composite dailouge was started. hich include peace security (CBM) saichin sir creek ooler barrage terrorism drug trafficking but again due to mumbai attacks the process halted until 2011 . this time emphasis was laid on trade. ln 2013 the process was against perturbed by skirmishes on LOC until Nawaz Singh meeting in newyork where it was decided to convey meetings of DGMOs to resolve the hostile sitution and again move towards better ties. HISTORY : Here is a look at some highs and lows in relations between India and Pakistan. 1947 Ã¢â¬ The British Empire in the subcontinent is divided into two countries: India and Pakistan. The unexpected Partition and lack of proper arrangements for one of the reatest migrations of modern history led to skirmishes and bloodshed on both sides of the divide. 1947/48 Ã¢â¬ India and Pakistan go to war over Kashmir. The war ends with a I-IN-ordered ceasefire and resolution seeking a plebiscite for the people of Jammu and Kashmir to decide whether to become part of India or Pakistan. 1965 Ã¢â¬ India and Pakistan fight their second war over Kashmir. Fighting ends after the United Nations calls for a ceasefire. 966Ã¢â¬ Tashkand accord signed by Indias prime minister Lal Bahadur Shastri (who died the next day) and Pakistans president Ayub Khan, ending the 17-day war between Pakistan and India the parties agreed to withdraw all armed forces to positions held before Aug. 5, 1965; to restore diplomatic relations; and to discuss economic, refugee, and other questions. The agreement was criticized in India because it did not contain a no-war pact or any renunciation of guerr illa aggression in Kashmir. 1971 Ã¢â¬ A rebellion in East Pakistan and alleged interference from the Indian side lead the two countries to war for a third time. East Pakistan becomes independent Bangladesh. 1972 Ã¢â¬ Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfkar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi sign agreement in Indian town of Simla over principles meant to govern relations. Both countries decided to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations (2)Kashmir dispute is a bilateral issue and must be settled through bilateral negotiations (3)all always respect each others national unity, territorial integrity, political independence and 1989 Ã¢â¬ Separatist revolt starts in Indian-administered Kashmir. India accuses Pakistan of arming and sending militants into the region, which Pakistan denies. 1998 Ã¢â¬ India carries out nuclear tests. Pakistan responds with its own tests. February 1999 Ã¢â¬ Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee holds summit with Pakistani counterpart Nawaz Sharif in Lahore. known as BUS DIPLOMACY 1999 Ã¢â¬ India and Pakistan wage brief conflict in the mountains above Kargil on the Line of Control, the ceasefire line dividing Jammu and Kashmir. July 2001 Ã¢â¬ Summit between Pakistani leader General Pervez Musharraf and Vajpayee in Agra in India ends in failure. December 2001 Ã¢â¬ Militants attack Indian parliament. India blames Pakistan-based militants Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) and Jaish-e-Mohammad of launching attack. Tensions rise as one million troops are mobilised on either side of the border; war only averted months later in June 2002. 2003 Ã¢â¬ Pakistan, India agree ceasefire on the Line of Control. 2004 Ã¢â¬ The two countries launch a formal peace process. ( COMPOSITE DAILOUGE) November 2008 Ã¢â¬ Ten gunmen launch three days of multiple attacks in Mumbai, killing 166. India again blames Pakistan-based militants and snaps talks with Pakistan. June 2009 Ã¢â¬ Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari meet on the sidelines of an international gathering in Russia. Singh tells Zardari he wants him to ensure militants cannot operate from Pakistan. March Singh invites Pakistani Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani to watch a historic 2011 Ã¢â¬ World Cup cricket match between the two sides and discuss reviving peace process. India beat Pakistan in the match. CRlCKET DIPLOMACY May 2011 Ã¢â¬ Indian and Pakistani troops exchange cross-border fire after an Indian soldier is killed by Pakistani troops in Kashmir. After talks, India and Pakistan break no ice on how to demilitarise the no-mans land above the Siachen glacier. November 2011 Ã¢â¬ Pakistan ecides to grant India Most Favoured Nation trade status. Singh and Gilani promise a new chapter in their history after discussions in the Maldives. 2011 Ã¢â¬ Pakistan takes further steps toward normal trade and travel ties with India, agreeing to open most commerce by February 2012 and ease visa rules. January 2013 Ã¢â¬ India accuses a group of Pakistani soldiers of barbaric and inhuman behaviour after two Indian soldiers are killed in a firefight in Kashmir and their bodies mutilated. Pakistan denies involvement. Peace talks stall and Indian Prime Minister Singh says there can be no business as usual. CURRENT RELATIONS TRADE RELATIONS in 1947 pakistan 70% trade was with india. in 1952 oak export to india was $113 million where as india exported $. 03million. balance of trade was in pakistan favour till 1965. from 1965 to 1975 there was no trade. After reopening of trade b/w pak india except first threee year again BOT was in pakistan favour in 1993 india changed its policy from socialist to capitalist mode and BOT was in favour of india in 1996 the ratio was 1:2 after india granted MFN status to Pakistan. In 2011 it rose to 1 granting MFN . The previous government of the Pakistan Peoples Party ad announced in early 2012 to grant MFN status to India by the end of that year. But it didnt follow through on its decision because of impending elections and pressure from certain industrial and farm lobbies. Indias failure to remove non-tariff barriers (NTBs) to ease the flow of Pakistani goods into its territory was also a major reason for Islamabads reluctance to grant MFN status for its next door neighbour. The Agreement (Safta) with zero tariff rates in 2016. The negative list was also to be phased out by the end of last year, but was delayed because of Indias refusal to emove NTBs to ease the concerns of Pakistani manufacturers of automobile and auto parts, pharmaceuticals, etc. The two-way trade volume has increased to about $2 billion in 2011-12, from $835 million in 2004-05. The size of trade held through third countries is estimated to be many times greater than that done through official channels. Some estimates suggest that bilateral trade could reach $10 billion in a few years, if business relations normalise between the two nations. KASHMIR covered in detaial WATER DISPUTE: covered detailed SIR CREEK Sir Creek is a 96 km marshy strip in the Rann of Kutch area lying between he southern tips of Pakistans Sindh province and Indian state of Gujarat, opening in the Arabian Sea. The dispute is related to the Rann of Kutch. During independence, Pakistan inherited the control of the whole of northern Rann of Kutch, but India occupied a part of it in 1956 . The 1914 resolution that awarded the whole of Sir Creek to Sindh, which in 1947 Joined Pakistan while Gujarat opted for India, should have been respected. The matter would have been amicably resolved, but two developments changed the Indian stance: firstly, the prospect of oil and gas being ound in the Sir Creek area and secondly, the advent of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of Seas (UNCLOS) to which both Pakistan and India became signatories. The consequent Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) granted Pakistan and India rights under the convention over the sea resources up to 200 nautical miles in the water column and up to 300 nautical miles in the land beneath the column. Of all bilateral disputes between Pakistan and India, Sir Creek has the simplest solution and can be resolved as a confidence building measure (CBM), paving the way to settle the more complex ones. Political will is required. n 2011 and 2012 meetings were held in Islamabad and delhi and substantial development was seen but due to unfavoured ties it didnot proceded futher SAICHEN GLACIER. The Siachen Glacier The roots of the conflict over Siachen (the place of roses) lie in the non-demarcations on the western side on the map beyond NJ9842. The 1949 Karachi agreement and the 1972 Simla agreement presumed that it was not feasible for human habitation to survive north of NJ9842. Piror to 1984 neither India nor Pakistan had any permanent presence in the area. The conflict began in 1984 with Indias successful Operation Meghdoot during which it wrested control of the Siachen Glacier (unoccupied and not demarcated area). in 2012 GYARI sector incident it is clear that this dispute is futile and useless to stay there. prisoners : 2007 INDO PAK Judicial committe composed of retired eight Judges from both sides was formed to know numbers of prisoner on both sides . hey invistegated the condition of Jails and prisooners to obtain and facilitate release of prisoner. ln recent past prisoners were swapped from both sides. Visa regime in recent past new visa regime was signed by both countries hich include new visa regime, more concessions have been given to the businessmen from both the countries with giving them multiple entry one y ear visa with the exemption from the Police Report and with increasing the number of cities Group Tourist Visa has been introduced under which a group of 10 to 50 persons will registered tour operators from both the countries. Pilgrim Visa, under the new visa regime, pilgrim visas will be issued to pilgrims intending to visit religious shrines as per the 1974 protocol on visits to religious shrines, or any future revision to the protocol. errorism India claim that their is constant infiltration of militants trained by Pakistani intelligence into kashmir and are involved in mutiny. Mumbai Attacks. nterferance of indian army army,and support to Baloch separatist. there is concerns on both sides HOW TO NORMALISE SITUATION hot lines to remove misunderstanding people to people communication (culture exchange progs,visa relaxation,bus and rail service) trade relation political will, sincerity, ( put hardliners on both siades) constant dailouge and political solution for throny issues like kashmir and terrorisms.
Monday, March 2, 2020
Top 4 Activities to Reach Reluctant Readers We have all had those students who have a love for reading, and the ones who dont. There may be many factors that correlate with why some students are reluctant to read. The book may be too hard for them, parents at home may not actively encourage reading, or the student is just not interested in what they are reading. As teachers, it is our job to help nurture and develop a love of reading in our students. By employing strategies and creating a few fun hands-on activities, we can motivate students to want to read, and not just because we make them read. The following four hands-on reading activities will encourage even the most reluctant readers to be excited about reading: Storia for iPad Technology today is unbelievable! There are so many ways to make books exciting that Scholastic book clubs decided to join in on the fun of ebooks! This app is exciting because not only is it free to download, but the amenities seem endless! There are literally thousands of books to download, from picture books to chapter books. Storia offers interactive read aloud books, a built-in highlighter and dictionary, along with learning activities to accompany the book. If you give a student the opportunity to choose a hands-on book of their choice, you will see it is a powerful way to encourage even the most reluctant reader. Record Students Reading Books Allowing children to choose what they want to read based upon their own interests will encourage them to want to read. A fun activity to try is to let the student select a book of their choice and record them reading the book aloud. Then play back the recording and have the student follow along to their voice. Research has shown that when students listen to themselves read, their reading becomes better. This is the perfect activity to add to your learning centers. Place a tape recorder and several different books in the reading center and allow students to take turns taping themselves read. Teacher Read Aloud Listening to stories from a teacher may be one of a students favorite parts of the school day. To instill this kind of passion for reading with your students, give them the opportunity to choose which book you read to the class. Choose two or three books that you feel are appropriate for your students and let them vote on the best one. Try to sway the vote towards the students who you know are the reluctant ones to read. Have a Scavenger Hunt Games are a fun way to engage students in learning while still having fun. Try creating a classroom scavenger hunt where each team has to read the clues to find out where the items they are searching for are. The students that do not like to read will not even realize they are practicing their reading skills.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Supply Chain Management (operations management)2 - Assignment Example In order to maximize revenue, an organization has to consider the net worth of a product to the customers and what the supply chain tends to accomplish is to get the exact requests of the consumers. Supply chain management is basically concerned with issues of who is involved, cost and service in addition to integration of such kind of services (Jacoby, 2010). Supply chain strategies are directly affected by other chains available within the organizations. This includes an activity that comes up with the introduction of new products to the firm. Supply chain should also be integrated with other goals of the organization like the ones which leads to maximization of profit margin thus giving a lot of returns. Supply chains needs to be designed to eliminate unnecessary uncertainty and risks at all levels of production. Some of the risks that may come in the course of production include the risks associated with machines, logistics amongst others. Organization can optimize supply chain management to improve results and remove obstacles in several ways such as the global optimization. Having a complex network, the supply chain management have so far been developed to enable integration of products from the point it comes from the supplier to the point delivery is done. A good example is whereby an organization can be able to get a supply and directly deliver it to consumer without having to actually stock it and then goes ahead to make payments through electronic money transfer. Supply chain is considered dynamic in nature. CustomersÃ¢â¬â¢ demands and suppliersÃ¢â¬â¢ potentiality will always change after sometimes. This will in turn leads to evolution in supply chain relationships. For instance, when a customer potentials increases, this will impact more pressure on the supplier to increase the rate of productivity in quantity and quality. Organizations should be able to project any risk that might come in the line of production of commodities to the
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Reaction Paper about Communicating Through Nonverbal Behaviors - Essay Example ean my cupboard and I had replied with an Ã¢â¬Å"Okay MumÃ¢â¬ but I received a thrashing in return and when I inquired as to the reason behind it, my mother said that I shrugged my shoulders and rolled my eyes which exuberated a lot of negativity. That day onwards I became watchful of my body language. A common misconception is that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s body language is the only form of non-verbal communication. That is not quite the case, other categories of non-verbal communication include: paralanguage, spatial usage and self-presentation. These encompass the pitch and tone of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s voice, the posture and use of space as also the attention a person pays to his/her appearance, even to the point of minute details such as the perfume a person is wearing. The multitude of cues which fall under non-verbal communication have the ability of perplexing people with how to react under different situations. A lot of conscious effort is required if a person wants to communicate a single message through his verbal as well as nonverbal cues. Sometimes, for example in front of elders decency would not permit a person to disagree blatantly with what the elders are saying, so through our verbal message we tend to agree with them, however our non-verbal communication reveals our true in tentions. Therefore, it is important to exercise ample control over our nonverbal communication, since with the progress of time awareness regarding nonverbal communication and its significance is
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Is Charles PerraultÃ¢â¬â¢s Little Red Riding Hood Relevant to the Modern World? A story commonly spread through word of mouth, Charles Perrault wrote an early rendition of Little Red Riding Hood in 1697. Between the late 17th century and today, there have been a few changes in societal norms, customs, and understandings of social values. To summarize, laws based on religion have given way to laws based on scienceÃ¢â¬ ¦in turn, scientists have taken their newfound social power and discovered ways to destroy all life on EarthÃ¢â¬ ¦following that, humans have practiced leaving the planet, preparing for the inevitable day when our self-created nuclear holocaust gives us no other choiceÃ¢â¬ ¦and lastly, various oppressed social groups, recognizing that they would also like a seat on their starship to salvation, have fought for their civil rights and equality through various social reform movements. A side effect, political correctness, is the attempt to rid the English language of any terms, phrases, or expressions that would encourage our society to rema in rooted in its biased theories of the past. Thus, we are now at an age where a maxim is placed upon the empowerment of the individual, no matter who you are or what formerly oppressed group you may represent, with an equally strong maxim placed upon breaking any barriers that block the empowerment of the individual. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s greatÃ¢â¬ ¦but what does it have to do with Little Red Riding Hood? With so much happening in the past four hundred years, stories which may have previously seemed perfect and timeless have perhaps become socially outdated. This could be the case with many fairy tales, and PerraultÃ¢â¬â¢s Little Red Riding Hood is certainly no exception. In general, his vers... ... has taken the civil rights movements of the 20th century and, perhaps, transformed them into raging individualism. The backwardness is clear: Whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s a hunter, woodcutter, or doctor, a person trying to save anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s life is admirable and a Good Samaritan, and most certainly not an oppressive chauvinist worthy of reprimand or lawsuits. Political correctness may have its values; however, for Garner and many other Americans, it represents social movements that have been taken too far. Through satire, Garner displays his yearning for simpler times, when wolves just ate little girls who talked to strangers. Works Cited Perrault, Charles. Ã¢â¬Å"Little Red Riding Hood.Ã¢â¬ The Classic Fairy Tales. Ed. Maria Tatar. New York: Norton, 1999. 11-13. Garner, James Finn. Ã¢â¬Å"Little Red Riding Hood.Ã¢â¬ Politically Correct Bedtime Stories. New York: MacMillan, 1994. 1-4.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Bullying is defined as a behavior used by a person to deride or ostracize another person, but bullying is far more complex than this simple definition. Bullying, as perceived by many teachers and administrators in the school systems, only exists in the physical form, but bullying takes many forms and does not stop at physical violence. Other forms in which bullying appears are verbal, emotional, and cyber. Verbal bullying uses words and other verbal tactics to tear down the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s self-esteem. Emotional bullying is more traumatic than verbal and focuses on making the victim feel like he or she is isolated and an outcast. Cyber bullying targets victims through social networking and text messaging; bullying victims through the cyber world causes more damage because it gives the victim no escape from their tormentors, even when they are not face to face. No matter the tactic, the severity, or the cause, bullying hurts, and the effects are considerable. Although different people will handle being bullied in different ways, there are three main effects to being bullied: the development of depression, anxiety, or other mental disorders, a decline in academic achievement, and a stunt in social development. One study showed that victims of bullying have more anxiety, sadness, sleep difficulties, low self-esteem, headaches, stomach pain, and general tension than other classmates who are not experiencing bullying (Ã¢â¬Å"Consequences of BullyingÃ¢â¬ ). Bullying leads to the development of anxiety and other mental disorders because it plays on the mind and mental health of the victim by downgrading them and making them believe that they are worthless. When a student goes to school every day and gets pushed, shoved, made fun of, and laughed at, they develop a feeling of being an outcast, or a freak. This view that they develop of themselves causes them to shut down mentally. They can no longer think logically, because their view of logic is disrupted by the taunts and actions of the bully. Evidence indicates that the anxiety the victim develops will escalate into much more severe anxiety disorders such as depression, separation anxiety, and panic disorders (Ã¢â¬Å"Consequences of BullyingÃ¢â¬ ). The disorders that the victim develops will not go away when he or she gets out of school, but they will follow the victim into adulthood. One study conducted by Dr. William Copeland analyzed the mental disorders in adults that were bullied as children. He analyzed these adults when they were children as well, before and after the bullying occurred. Since childhood mental health was evaluated and any preexisting mental disorders could be ruled out, the study showed that the adultsÃ¢â¬â¢ mental disorders were a long lasting effect of being bullied as children (Pappas). Other side effects of the mental disorders associated with bullying include: suicidal thoughts, harmful actions, and paranoia. Bullying is mentally exhausting on its victims, and they will eventually break down emotionally, physically, and mentally. A major effect of bullying is an overall decline in academic achievement. The victim will start to miss days of school either in fear of the physical harm threatened to them by a bully, or to avoid the verbal humiliation. One study concluded that eight percent of eighth graders in the United States miss at least one day of school per month for fear of bullies (Ã¢â¬Å"Consequences of BullyingÃ¢â¬ ). As they become stressed and paranoid by the bullying, their focus on their classes deteriorates. This nonchalant attitude towards academics results in poor grades and academic performance, which will lead to even more anxiety and embarrassment, and give the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s tormentors yet another thing to pick on him or her about (Ã¢â¬Å"Consequences of BullyingÃ¢â¬ ). They will also start avoiding certain parts of the school that are prime areas for bullying such as cafeterias, bathrooms, and even certain hallways if possible. Bullying can affect a student to the point of dropping out of school altogether. They will feel like a lost cause because they are outcasts, their grades are poor, and they are scared to walk through the school doors in the morning. The victim will get out of bed every morning and dread going to school because they will be wondering what will happen to them on that day. Academics will take a backseat to the stress and anxiety of being bullied, because it is all the victim will think about. Academic achievement not only declines for the victim, however. The bully will at times be more focused on bullying another student rather than doing a homework assignment, and even bystanders will become too intrigued in the ossip and stories to pay attention in class. As the bullying gets worse, so does the overall academic performance of bullied, the bully, and the bystander. Social development during and after bullying is almost nonexistent. Victims of bullying often have very few friends and sometimes none at all. Since they possess such high anxiety levels from being bull ied, and have very low self-esteem, they have a hard time making friends because they do not contain the confidence to walk up to someone and start a conversation. They view themselves as an outcast or a freak, and believe that no one wants to be friends with them. They have feelings of isolation and believe that they are not worthy of having friends (Ã¢â¬Å"Consequences of BullyingÃ¢â¬ ). Other kids or students may want to become friends with the victim, but they refrain from making any efforts to reach him or her in fear of being bullied themselves. Other students may also fear disapproval by their group of friends or clique if they were to reach out to a bullied victim. The victim becomes reclusive and socially awkward. This social awkwardness will continue to affect the victim long into adulthood and make job opportunities scarce and dealing with the public a stressful and awkward situation. Bullying is an aggressive behavior that affects the lives of more than twenty five percent of the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ children. Whether it is physical, verbal, emotional, or through the virtual world, bullying and its many forms are damaging. It can cause a straight Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ student to drop out of high school. It can cause a small town girl with a dream to commit suicide. Being bullied changes the victim. The mental trauma he or she goes through will cause anxiety and other mental disorders that will last well into adulthood. Emotionally, the victim takes so much pain until they cannot even feel anymore. They become like stone. Academic performance and achievement will decline, as well as participation in any school related function. Socially, the victim becomes a recluse or an outcast. Making friends becomes close to impossible, and they lose their self-worth. Bullying is more than a behavior; to the victim, it is a prison, and he or she will spend their whole lives trying to break free from the effects of this condemnation.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
The incidence of thyroid cancer is rapidly rising in the US accounting for 62,980 cases with 1890 deaths every year. It is the seventh most common cancer diagnosed in women and peaks earlier than in men. Despite its high prevalence, death rate from thyroid cancer is fairly stable from past many years. In general, thyroid cancer offers a good prognosis with an overall survival rate of approximately 90%. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) termed as differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) contribute to majority of thyroid cancers sharing a superior prognosis. Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), mostly acquired as a part of familial syndromes, display only modest cure rates. While surgical resection followed by radioiodine therapy remains the treatment of choice for localized thyroid cancer, it fails to eradicate tumors with aggressive behavior. In marked contrast to DTC, anaplastic carcinoma (ATC), an undifferentiated sub-type of thyroid cancer, ha s a higher propensity to locally invade nearby structures and metastasize rapidly. It approaches to almost 50% of all thyroid cancer-related deaths, the median survival being only six months. The grim prognosis of ATC is due to the fact that it is diagnosed at an advanced stage which offers palliative treatment as the only option for patients suffering from the disease. Because of the chemo- and radio-resistant nature observed in aggressive thyroid cancers, many researchers have beenShow MoreRelatedThe Levels Of T4 And Tsh Are Vital For The Diagnosis Of Hypothyroidism Essay1617 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesconclusions by the use of the clinical symptoms only. The functioning of thyroid aberrations have to be screened for once an aged individual shows one or some the signs of the disorder (Franklyn, 2013). Epidemiology. 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